Pectin is a viscous soluble fiber that forms gels found in natural foods such as fruits, vegetables, and legumes.
Due to its advantages of biological activity, biocompatibility, biodegradability, renewability, low cost and easy modification, pectin has been more and more used in food, medical treatment, cosmetics, biological implants, drug delivery, tissue engineering, textiles and other fields.
At present, there are a variety of pectin health foods on the market, such as: apple pectin, citrus pectin, red quinoa pectin, beet pectin, etc., some products claim to have the effect of inhibiting obesity, detoxification, balancing blood sugar, cardiovascular health, intestinal purification, and weight control.
In empirical medicine, what are the benefits of ingesting pectin, and are there any side effects of pectin? See text analysis for details.
What is pectin?
Pectin is a natural polymer water-soluble polysaccharide substance with complex structure (composed of galacturonic acid and methyl ester), which exists in the primary cell wall and middle layer of terrestrial plant tissues, helps to maintain its structure, and has a variety of functions in plant growth, morphology, development, cell expansion, seed hydration, plant defense, etc.
Commercial pectin sources are currently dominated by the highest levels of citrus peels (30 to 35%), such as orange, lemon and grapefruit peels, and apple pulp (15 to 20%).
Other fruits rich in pectin include strawberries, cherries, bananas, passionflowers, papayas, plums, gooseberries, cherries, etc
What are the proven benefits of pectin?
1. Pectin is beneficial for blood pressure regulation
It is estimated that one in four adults worldwide has high blood pressure, totaling nearly 10 billion people, causing more than 7 million died at early age worldwide and accounting for 4.5% of the global burden of disease.
According to statistics, in people aged 40 to 90, for every 10 mm Hg increase in blood pressure, the risk of coronary death doubles.
With the global prevalence of hypertension expected to increase by 60% by 2025, primary prevention of hypertension has become a global public health challenge
A systematic literature review and meta-analysis (22 randomized controlled trials, 1430 participants) noted that, overall, supplementation with viscous soluble fiber (median follow-up of 7 weeks, median daily dose of 8.7 grams, sources: β-glucan, guar gum, konjac, pectin, and psyllium) reduced systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure blood pressure). Note 1
In addition, among the five fiber types, the reduction of systolic blood pressure was most significant with the use of plantain fiber.
*Conclusion: Intake of viscous soluble fiber may have a positive effect on regulating blood pressure, but more studies are needed to support it due to the heterogeneity and low quality of the studies included
2. Pectin regulates cholesterol
Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for atherosclerosis and is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, stroke and myocardial infarction, with an unhealthy diet, lack of exercise, lack of exercise, stress, smoking and obesity as one of the main predisposing factors.
Studies have also found that a 1.0 mmol/L reduction in LDL cholesterol is associated with a 10% reduction in all-cause mortality, a 23% reduction in the risk of major coronary events and a 17% reduction in stroke.
A meta-analysis (67 studies with 2990 participants) suggested that intake of soluble fiber (from pectin, oat bran, guar gum, psyllium at a daily dose of 2 to 10 g) was associated with a decrease in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. Note 2
In addition, soluble fiber has no significant effect on triglycerides and HDL cholesterol.
*Conclusion: Intake of soluble fiber may be helpful in regulating cholesterol, but due to small sample sizes and heterogeneity, more studies are needed to support this
3. Pectin is beneficial for weight management
Although obesity is a complex, multifactorial disease with genetic, behavioral, socioeconomic, and environmental causes, it is largely preventable and treatable
Together, obesity and overweight affect more than a third of the world’s population today, and if current trends continue, an estimated 38% of the world’s adults will be overweight and 20% obese by 2030.
Weight management is mainly influenced by genetics, behaviors and environment, of which diet is the most important factor affecting weight stability, followed by increased physical activity.
A systematic review found that viscous fibers (e.g., pectin, β-glucans, and guar gum) reduced appetite more significantly than less viscous fibers (59% vs. 14%). Note 3
Overall, viscous fiber had relatively little effect on energy intake and body weight, and no significant dose-response relationship was observed
Another study has pointed out that glial pectin can increase satiety and reduce energy intake through post-ingestion mechanisms. Note 4
*Conclusion: Pectin intake can help increase satiety, but whether it is helpful for weight loss remains to be confirmed
4. Pectin is beneficial for diarrheal diseases
The objective definition of diarrhea is more than 24 grams or 200 ml of stool every 200 hours, with the most common cause being an intestinal infection.
Most diarrhoeal diseases last 5-7 days, and these episodes are usually defined as acute diarrhoea, and when diarrhoea lasts longer than 14 days, they are defined as chronic and persistent diarrhoea, and are the second leading cause of death and hospitalization in children under 5 years of age in the world (mostly in low- and middle-income countries).
A randomized, double-blind controlled trial (7 days, 62 children with persistent diarrhoea) found that green bananas and pectin significantly reduced stool volume, oral rehydration volume, intravenous fluid volume, number of vomiting, and duration of diarrhoea. Note 5
*Conclusion: Pectin may be helpful in improving diarrhoea, but limited by small sample sizes, more studies are needed
5. Pectin is beneficial for blood sugar control
Type 2 diabetes is a serious and costly public health epidemic that is expected to affect 1 in 3 U.S. adults by 2050.
Despite well-established diabetes screening guidelines, more than 8 million people with diabetes and 80 million people with prediabetes remain undiagnosed or unaware of their condition.
Therefore, diabetes screening guidelines recommend targeted screening for high-risk groups, including: over 45 years of age, family history of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, history of cardiovascular disease, lack of exercise, polycystic ovary syndrome, history of gestational diabetes, birth weight greater than 9 pounds, or clinical symptoms associated with insulin resistance.
A placebo-controlled, randomized, parallel-blind study (12 weeks, 70 patients with abnormal glucose metabolism) found that neither beet pectin nor polydextrose significantly improved fasting or postprandial blood glucose concentrations. Note 6
*Conclusion: To date, there is no clear evidence that pectin can assist in glycaemic control
Are there any side effects of pectin?
For most people in good health, it is safe to use pectin products in moderation.
However, possible side effects or adverse effects that have been reported include stomach cramps, diarrhea, gas, and loose stools, especially in combination with other fiber products (e.g., guar gum, soy fiber, pea fiber, corn bran).
Safety precautions (6 contraindications for use)
1. There have been cases of occupational injuries caused by rhinitis, runny nose, cough and asthma caused by inhalation of large amounts of pectin dust at work. Note 7
2. People who have been allergic to nut-based foods such as pistachios and cashews may also be allergic to pectin. Note 8
3. Do not use with tetracycline antibiotics (Tetracycline Antibiotics), may reduce the drug efficacy, in order to avoid this interaction, pectin use is best two hours before or four hours after taking tetracycline antibiotics, related drug names are: demeclocycline, minocycline (dimethylaminotetracycline), tetracycline
4. Do not combine with the cardiovascular disease drug digoxin, which may reduce the efficacy of the drug
5. Do not combine with cholesterol-lowering drug Lovastatin, which may reduce the effectiveness of the drug
6. Excessive pectin supplementation with meals may inhibit the absorption of nutrients from food, as reported in two case studies. Note Note 9, Note 10
Where can I buy the highest quality Pectin that is recommended by most people?
NOW Foods, Apple Pectin, 700 mg, 120 Veg Capsules
(Direct shipping from the United States / Worldwide delivery)
Apple Pectin is a water soluble fiber which has a gel-forming effect when mixed with water. As a dietary fiber, Apple Pectin may be helpful in supporting good intestinal health.