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About Cystitis/UTI’s

There are different types of cystitis as follows:

Bacterial Cystitis (BC) or UTI’s
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Radiation Cystitis (Hemorrhagic Cystitis)
Radiation therapy is an important management tool for the treatment of cancer of the pelvic organs.  However, it can result in radiation injury to the bladder (radiation cystitis).  Symptoms can include hematurai and pain.  Treatments include Hyaluronic Acid, Elmiron and Botox injections.

Chemotherapy Induced Cystitis
Cystitis may be caused by immunotherapy given directly in to the bladder.  The most common form of immunotherapy given in this way is BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guerin).

Bacillus Calmette-Guerin has been in use since the 1980s and is the most proven and effective form of immunotherapy at this point in time.  Immunotherapy has a mechanism of action different from that of chemotherapy.  It uses materials made by your own body or made in a laboratory to boost, direct or restore your body’s natural defences against disease.

The drug “Mesna” is given with infosfamide and with higher doses of cyclophonsphamide to protect the baldder from becoming irritated.  Treatments can include Hyaluronic Acid and Elmiron.

Cystitis Glandularis/Cystitis Cystica
Cystitis Glandularis is the term given to describe the appearance of the bladder lining, in a certain frorm of bladder inflammation which is usually due to chronic urinary infection.  A milder form of inflammation is termed cysitis cystica because the bladder lining breaks out in multiple tiny blisters.  In cystitis glandularis the blisters have a slightly thicker lining and the bladder itself acquires a cobblestoned appearance.  There is no direct relationship between these forms of inflammation and (BPS) Bladder Pain Syndrome/(IC) Interstitial Cystitis but they may co-exist.  Treatment centres around long-term antibiotic therapy to eradicate urinary tract infections. 

Follicular Cystitis

Follicular Cystitis is a chronic form of cystitis characterised by small mucosal nodules and the formation of lymphoid follicles in the bladder. Treatment centres around antibiotics to control infection and a corticosteriod to reduce inflammation, such as Prednisone.

Eosinophilic Cystitis

Eosinophilic Cystitis is a rare inflammatory bladder condition caused by a build up of eosinophils in the bladder. The cause of the condition is unknown but it is though to occur more commonly in those with allergies. Symptoms are similar to those of  (BPS) Bladder Pain Syndrome/(IC) Interstitial Cystitis and treatments, which are directed mainly at control of symptoms, can include antimuscarinics, amitriptyline, antibiotics and on occasion steriod medication.


Trigonitis refers to changes seen under cystoscopy to the tissue of the trigon (the neck of the bladder). The condition occurs when the normal bladder lining cells (urothelium) are replaced with squamous (skin derived) cells and is typically found in postmenopausal women or younger women with fluctuating levels of oestrogen. The cause of trigonitis is not yet known but on occasion electrocautery is used as a treatment. Antibiotics and anticholinergics may also be recommended.

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