The use of L-lysine began in 1968 when studies pointed to it to be used to combat cold sores caused by the human herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) and even feline-associated feline herpesvirus infection.
However, lysine is not just a treatment for herpes, as it is also essential in various physiological processes.
What are the benefits of L-lysine in empirical medicine? Are there any side effects of L-lysine? See the article for details
What is L-lysine?
L-lysine is one of the nine essential amino acids needed for human growth and tissue repair, is a necessary building block of protein, and if it is deficient, it can lead to the degradation of cell tissues and can lead to serious health problems, so it is important to consume enough amino acids in the diet.
For example, lysine is involved in the production of carnitine (which converts fatty acids into energy and regulates cholesterol levels) and helps your body produce hormones, enzymes, and antibodies.
What are the benefits of L-lysine?
1. Discionic acid improves herpes simplex virus infection
Herpes simplex virus, divided into types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), is a human neurovirus belonging to the herpesviridae family.
Clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic infections or mild mucosal lesions on the lips, cornea, genitals, or skin to more serious and even life-threatening infections, including encephalitis and neonatal infections.
A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (6 months, 52 participants with recurrent herpes simplex) noted that oral isolic acid (1,000 mg three times daily) helped reduce the number of recurrent herpes simplex infections, the severity of symptoms, and the time to recovery. Note 1
Another study, also in recurrent cold sores, found that supplementation with 1000 mg of hypoglycine per day for 12 months reduced the number of lesions (in addition, the number of cold sores was related to the concentration of lysine in the blood, and the incidence of cold sores was lower in patients above 165 nmol/ml). Note 2
A double-blind, placebo-controlled (12-week study of 65 patients with recurrent cold sores) noted that lysine (1000 mg daily) was not helpful in reducing recurrence rates, improving healing rates, and improving lesions. Note 3
*Conclusion: For recurrent herpes simplex (HSV-1), l-lysine supplementation may help reduce recurrence, reduce severity, and aid healing, but limited by small sample sizes and inconsistent results, more large studies are needed to confirm its clinical benefit
2. Improvement of isolic acid and prevention of feline herpesvirus infection?
Feline herpesvirus-1 is a common infectious disease in cats, and the main source of transmission is mouth, nose, and eye secretions from infected cats
Although vaccines against these viruses are widely used in the process of breeding cats, infection with these viruses is still common, especially when cats are raised in herds
Possible clinical symptoms after infection include fever, serous ocular and nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, keratitis, sneezing, cough, dyspnea, loss of appetite, lethargy, and pneumonia and death are rare
A systematic review has suggested that lyohydrine is not helpful in preventing or treating feline herpesvirus 1 infection, and some reports have even found that l-lysine supplementation increases infection frequency and disease severity. Note 4
*Conclusion: To date, the use of phocyclic acid has not led to positive help in the prevention and treatment of feline herpesvirus type 1 infection
3. L-lysine is beneficial for schizophrenia
Schizophrenia is a serious chronic mental illness, one of the most disabling diseases in all medicine, with a lifetime risk of about 1%, and the main causative factors are related to genetic inheritance (up to 80%) and environmental factors.
Its core features include positive symptoms (delusions and hallucinations, and loss of connection with reality), negative symptoms (especially impaired motivation, decreased self-speech, and social withdrawal), and cognitive impairment.
A single-blind, randomized, crossover study (8 weeks, 10 patients with schizophrenia) showed that combining high doses of exosine in addition to traditional antipsychotics could further improve positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test scores, especially delusions and suspicions , problem-solving skills, and cognitive flexibility programs are the most prominent. Note 5
*Conclusion: Exosine combined with traditional drug therapy may bring further help to schizophrenia, but due to insufficient sample size, more studies are needed to support this
4. L-lysine is beneficial for blood sugar control
All types of diabetes mellitus are characterized by hyperglycemia, relative or absolute absence of insulin action, pathway-selective insulin resistance, diabetic-specific pathological development of the retina, glomeruli and peripheral nerves.
Diabetes is also associated with atherosclerotic disease, affecting the arteries that supply the heart, brain and lower extremities, and clinically more than 30% of hospitalized patients with acute myocardial infarction have diabetes and 35% have impaired glucose tolerance.
One controlled study of type 2 diabetes treated with drugs showed that the use of lysine reduced serum concentrations of advanced glycation end products compared with the control group. Note 6
Another study (in 13 healthy adults) showed that ionine intake led to a slight decrease in blood sugar and an increase in glucagon and insulin concentrations. Note 7
*Conclusion: Ionine may be potentially helpful for glycaemic control, but it is limited by small sample sizes and more research is needed
Are there any side effects of L-lysine?
Wasine is safe for most people at appropriate doses, but possible side effects or adverse effects that have been reported include diarrhea, nausea, and abdominal pain.
There have been cases of long-term overdose leading to nephropathy (Fanconi’s syndrome and tubulointerstitial nephritis), which may include pain between the buttocks and ribs, decreased urination, nausea and vomiting, and bloody stools.
Safety precautions (9 contraindications to use)
1. Do not use during pregnancy and lactation (due to unknown safety)
2. Do not use in combination with calcium tablets (because isine will increase calcium absorption, too much calcium may lead to hypercalcemia)
3. Do not combine with arginine, because isoline and arginine use the same transporter molecule, if combined use will produce antagonistic effects and reduce each other’s absorption rate
4. Patients with a history of gallstones or high cholesterol should not use it (because excessive intake of hypoglycine will increase cholesterol levels and may increase the chance of gallstones forming)
5. Patients with hyperlysinemia or increased urinary polyacidine (hyperlysinuria) related diseases should not be used
6. Do not use if the liver and kidney function is poor (due to unknown related safety)
7. Do not use with aminoglycoside antibiotics, may affect the efficacy of the drug, related drug names are: Streptomycin, kanamycin, tobramycin, gentamicin, neomycin, Amikacin (bumicanamycin), Netilmicin (ethyl siclostrumin)
8. Do not use in combination with gastrointestinal motility drugs, may affect the efficacy of drugs, related drug names are: prucalopride, tegaserod (tigaserol)
9. Patients with lysinuric protein intolerance should not use, which may cause diarrhea and stomach cramps
What is the dose of L-lysine (how to use)?
The basic level of ionine required to maintain human health is 30mg/kg body weight, which translates to 70 kg of body weight people need to consume about 2.1 g (grams) of isoline from food every day.
To prevent or treat herpes simplex infection, extract a supplement of about 1 to 3 grams per day (for 6 months to 1 year)
What are the foods rich in L-lysine?
Hypoglycine is found in naturally high-protein foods, especially meat and dairy products, and is found in relatively small amounts in plant-based foods
Foods rich in lyocyanine include (content per 100 grams):
Pork 2757mg / 100g
Eggs 912mg / 100g
Shrimp 2172mg / 100g
Chicken 3110mg / 100g
Soybeans and their products (tofu, protein powder) 2634mg / 100g
Lean beef and lamb 3582 mg / 100g
Tuna/Tuna 2590mg / 100g
Parmesan cheese 3306mg / 100g
Pumpkin seeds 1386mg / 100g
Where can I buy the highest quality L-lysine that is recommended by most people?
NOW Foods, Double Strength L-Lysine, 1,000 mg, 100 Tablets
(Direct shipping from the United States / Worldwide delivery)
Now Foods is a well-known health care brand in the United States, which has passed GMP high standard certification and has a high sales rate in major channels