Fisetin is a natural compound that has attracted widespread research interest in recent years and has strong anti-inflammatory, antitumor and antioxidant properties. The first separation from the Venetian sumac tree dates back to 1833.
What are the benefits of fisetin in empirical medicine? Are there any side effects of fisetin? See text analysis for details
What is fisetin?
Fisetin is a natural flavonoid (a secondary metabolite of plants) belonging to the same flavonol subgroup as quercetin, myricetin and kaempferol, found in the green parts of plants, fruits, bark and hardwoods, commonly including: fruits (strawberries, apples, persimmons, mangoes, kiwi and grapes), vegetables (tomatoes, onions, and cucumbers), nuts, and wine.
What are the proven benefits of fisetin?
1. Beneficial to acute ischemic stroke
Stroke is the second leading cause of death and the third leading cause of disability globally, with 68% of strokes being ischemic and 32% hemorrhagic.
The most important factor in treating acute ischemic stroke is time, and ischemic stroke patients lose 190,000 brain cells per minute, about 14 million neural connections are destroyed, and 12 kilometers (7.5 miles) of nerve fibers are lost. There are two treatments for acute ischemic stroke. Intravenous thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy.
A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial (7-day study of 192 patients with acute ischemic stroke) showed that fisetin combined with rt-PA (recombinant tissue fibrinogen initiator) significantly improved delayed OTT (onset-to-treatment time) and stroke outcomes (measured by NIHSS score), and reduced matrix metalloproteinases in serum MMP-2, MMP-9 and c-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Note 1
*Conclusion: For acute ischemic stroke, fisetin as an adjuvant therapy with rt-PA may bring positive help to the treatment effect
2. Beneficial hyperuricemia nephropathy (animal studies)
Hyperuricemia, defined as high serum uric acid, is prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease. There is growing evidence that hyperuricemia is an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease or renal fibrosis.
Hyperuricemic nephropathy or urate nephropathy, characterized by hyperuricemia, gout, tubulointerstitial nephritis, renal fibrosis, is a serious kidney disease caused primarily by excessive accumulation and excretion of uric acid.
An animal study pointed out that fisetin reduces hyperuricemia, inhibits renal inflammatory response, and improves renal fibrosis by regulating STAT3 and TGF-β signaling pathways, thereby preventing hyperuricemia nephropathy. Note 2
*Conclusion: Animal studies suggest that fisetin may bring positive help to hyperuricemia nephropathy, but human studies still need to support it
3. Prevention of diabetic complications (animal studies)
Complications of diabetes include acute, life-threatening conditions such as severe hypoglycemia or ketoacidosis.
Chronic complications include severe vision loss, end-stage kidney disease requiring dialysis or transplantation, myocardial infarction and stroke, and amputation. With proper care and a healthy lifestyle, many life-threatening or disabling events can be prevented.
An animal study has shown that fisetin reduces diabetes-associated elevation of methylglyoxal protein glycosylation and helps improve multiple complications of the disease. Note 3
*Conclusion: Animal studies suggest that fisetin may have potential therapeutic use for diabetes complications, but further validation is needed in human studies.
4. Beneficial alcoholic liver injury (animal studies)
Alcoholic liver disease, including alcoholic steteaosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. In the United States, up to 50% of cirrhosis-related deaths are due to alcohol abuse.
To date, there are no FDA-approved anti-fibrotic drugs for liver cirrhosis. Treatment of cirrhosis relies on supportive care measures such as ascites control and treatment of oesophageal varices. Liver transplantation is a potential treatment, but it is only suitable for end-stage decompensated cirrhosis.
An animal study pointed out that fisetin improves alcohol-induced liver damage by accelerating alcohol clearance, inhibiting oxidative stress, correcting lipid metabolism disorders. Note 4
*Conclusion: Animal studies suggest that fisetin may have potential therapeutic use for alcoholic liver injury, but further validation is still needed in human studies.
Are there any side effects of fisetin?
Fisetin in appropriate doses is generally safe for most well-established people, and side effects have been reported to be gastrointestinal upset.
However, due to the sparse number of human trials of fisetin, the safety of long-term use and possible side effects in large doses are relatively unknown.
Safety precautions (3 contraindications to use)
- Pregnant women, lactating and children should avoid taking it (due to unknown safety)
- Use with caution if you are diabetic or taking hypoglycemic drugs, as fisetin may have a hypoglycemic effect
- If taking medication or have any medical condition, consult your doctor before supplementing to let them know all medications and supplements they are taking.