Coenzyme Q10 (coenzyme Q10, also known as coenzyme Q10) is also known as Ubiquinone due to its ubiquitous properties. It participates in energy production, and can also fight free radicals, accelerate metabolism, and slow down aging. It can be called a rejuvenating nutrient. Note 19
Is Coenzyme Q10 really beneficial (effect) as a supplement? Are there any side effects? See the latest empirical discussion in the article for details
What is coenzyme Q10?
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, also known as coenzyme Q10) is a benzoquinone compound (structure similar to vitamin K), which was first isolated from bovine heart mitochondria in 1957 by Frederick Crane of Wisconsin, USA. The identification and synthesis of the chemical structure was completed in 1958
Coenzyme Q is a naturally occurring coenzyme that exists in tissues and cells of all species, mainly located in the inner mitochondrial membrane. It is formed by the combination of a benzoquinone ring and a hydrophobic isoprenoid chain. The length of the side chain varies by species (Saccharomyces cerevisiae is mainly CoQ6). In human mitochondria, coenzyme Q mainly contains 10 isoprenyl groups, so it is named coenzyme Q10
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is mainly synthesized in the inner mitochondrial membrane, and a small part is obtained through diet
What are the characteristics of Coenzyme Q10?
Coenzyme Q10 is an important intermediary role of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. It is mainly involved in the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP provides energy for muscle contraction and other important cellular functions, so it can affect all cells, especially those with high energy requirements, such as The heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, spleen, pancreas and adrenal glands are extremely important for health
When it is reduced, coenzyme Q10 is the most important lipid antioxidant in the human body, which can reduce free radical production and prevent the oxidation of proteins, lipids and DNA
What are the food sources of coenzyme Q10?
Coenzyme Q10 has abundant animal sources, including beef, poultry, liver, eggs, and fatty fish (such as herring, salmon, salmon, and tuna)
Plant sources include: nuts, oranges, strawberries, spinach, cauliflower, broccoli, lentils, soybeans, etc.
The study pointed out that whether it is taken from food or health products, the absorption rate of the two is actually not much different. Note 16
6 questions about using coenzyme Q10
What are the empirical effects (effects) of Coenzyme Q10?
Coenzyme Q10 improves physical activity-related fatigue
Fatigue is a common symptom in daily life. It is usually described as lack of vitality, decreased endurance, and long-term recovery after physical activity (regardless of mental or physical fatigue)
Fatigue affects everyone, regardless of their skills, knowledge and training status.
In the workplace, the most important effects of fatigue include decreased work motivation, prolonged reaction time, decreased alertness, inattention, poor psychometric coordination, memory and information processing problems, and poor judgment.
＊Conclusion: Oral coenzyme Q10 (Coenzyme Q10) may improve fatigue and performance related to physical activity
Coenzyme Q10 is beneficial to vascular endothelial function
Vascular endothelium (vascular endothelium) is an active monolayer of cells covering the vascular lumen and separating the vascular wall from the circulating blood. It is also a highly selective barrier and metabolically active organ. It is effective for hemostasis, thrombosis, and local blood vessels. The adjustment of tension and redox balance, and the coordination of acute and chronic inflammation in the arterial wall are of great significance.
＊Conclusion: Coenzyme Q10 supplementation may have a positive effect on the improvement of vascular endothelial function, but whether it can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease remains to be confirmed
Coenzyme Q10 can help lose weight
Obesity is the abnormal accumulation of body fat (usually 20% higher than the normal ideal body weight). Due to the psychological and social stigma associated with overweight and obesity, the affected people are also vulnerable to personal and work life. Discrimination, even low self-esteem and depression.
＊Conclusion: As of now, there is no evidence that supplementing Coenzyme Q10 is helpful for weight loss, but due to the heterogeneity of the included studies, more studies are still needed to confirm its clinical benefits
Coenzyme Q10 improves disease-related fatigue
Fatigue is one of the most common complaints in doctor’s consultation. It is characterized by weakened work ability or motivation, usually accompanied by feelings of tiredness and sleepiness.
This type of fatigue is a non-specific symptom associated with many diseases, such as hypothyroidism, celiac disease, anemia, flu, heart failure, acute liver disease, cancer, diabetes, and sleep apnea.
＊Conclusion: For the improvement of disease-related fatigue, the results of using Coenzyme Q10 (Coenzyme Q10) are not consistent, yet to be confirmed
Coenzyme Q10 is beneficial for blood sugar control
Thirty years ago, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus) was considered a rare disease, but in recent decades, Asia has experienced rapid economic development, urbanization and changes in nutritional status, resulting in obesity and diabetes prevalence. A large increase, accounting for about 60% of the global diabetic population.
Adults with diabetes have a 50% higher risk of death due to various causes than adults without diabetes. In addition, there are risks of various complications (including accelerated development of cardiovascular disease, end-stage renal disease, vision loss, and amputation).
＊Conclusion: For type 2 diabetes, oral coenzyme Q10 has a positive effect on blood sugar control, but it is limited by possible risk bias and heterogeneity, and more research is needed to support it
3 kinds of health foods beneficial to diabetes (the first kind is often mentioned)
Coenzyme Q10 is good for migraine
Migraine is the second most common headache. It is usually described as moderate to severe unilateral pain with repeated throbbing or pulsation, usually lasting 4-72 hours, and may be accompanied by nausea, vomiting or Sensitive to light, sound or smell.
Before a migraine attack occurs, about one-third of patients can feel the aura. The most common one is a visual aura, which is in the form of jagged lines or scattered flashing dark spots (lasting about 5-60 minutes)
＊Conclusion: Coenzyme Q10 has a positive effect on migraine improvement, but it is limited by the small number of samples and still needs more large-scale trials for further verification
Coenzyme Q10 is beneficial for sarcopenia
Sarcopenia (sarcopenia) is an age-related senile syndrome. The main characteristics are loss of skeletal muscle, muscle strength, and physical fitness, which increase the risk of osteoporosis, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and the prevalence rate over 65 years of age. Up to 5% to 10%
＊Conclusion: Low levels of Coenzyme Q10 (Coenzyme Q10) are regarded as one of the indicators of sarcopenia, but more research is needed to confirm whether supplementation can bring benefits
Coenzyme Q10 improves inflammation indicators
Inflammation is a physiological response of biological tissues to injury, pathogen invasion, or irritation, which is mainly manifested as temperature rise, redness, swelling and pain caused by increased local blood flow
Short-term or acute inflammation is a unique protective response of organisms to eliminate harmful irritants and initiate self-healing mechanisms, but long-term or chronic inflammation is regarded as the main factor leading to many chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, chronic Kidney disease, type 2 diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer are all related to it
＊Conclusion: Supplementation of Coenzyme Q10 (Coenzyme Q10) has the effect of reducing a variety of pro-inflammatory hormones, but it is limited by the high heterogeneity between studies, and more evidence is still needed for verification
Coenzyme Q10 is good for heart failure
Heart failure (cardiac failure) often occurs when the ventricles cannot pump blood efficiently (systolic dysfunction) and relaxation function is impaired (diastolic dysfunction). The symptoms may include abnormal wheezing, fatigue or ankle swelling during exercise or rest
The causes of heart failure are often related to coronary heart disease, hypertension, cardiomyopathy, aging, and valve abnormalities, but congenital heart disease is the most common
＊Comment: Coenzyme Q10 can reduce the mortality of patients with heart failure and improve exercise capacity, but it is limited by possible bias and heterogeneity, and needs to be confirmed by more rigorous and large-sample experiments
Coenzyme Q10 is beneficial to male infertility
At present, most developed countries are facing a serious problem of declining fertility. The reasons are related to complex social and environmental factors, including economic development, environmental pollution, and climate warming.
Age is also one of the reasons for infertility. According to a census, men’s chances of getting their partners pregnant after 40 years old are reduced by 30% (compared to 30 years old). Note 9
＊Conclusion: Coenzyme Q10 (Coenzyme Q10) can improve the related routine semen parameters, but there is no evidence to prove that it can increase the chance of pregnancy. It needs other experimental verification
Coenzyme Q10 is good for high blood pressure
Essential hypertension is the most common blood pressure disease (about 90% to 95%). Although it has no direct cause, it is related to a variety of life factors, such as sedentary, stress, visceral obesity, overweight, alcohol intake, and aging …Wait
Coenzyme Q10 has anti-oxidant properties, improves vascular endothelial function, reduces peripheral resistance and inhibits peroxide production and other mechanisms, and is considered beneficial for blood pressure control
＊Conclusion: Although coenzyme Q10 (Coenzyme Q10) has the effect of lowering blood pressure, it does not reach the clinically significant standard. It needs to be further verified by more large-scale controlled studies
Coenzyme Q10 is beneficial for polycystic ovary syndrome
Polycystic ovary syndrome (polycystic ovary syndrome) is the most common endocrine disease in women of childbearing age, with a prevalence of about 5-21%.
Patients often experience symptoms such as reproductive dysfunction (hyperandrogenism, hirsutism, ovulation cessation, infertility, menstrual disorders), metabolic system abnormalities (obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease) and mood disorders, etc.
It has also been clinically found that more than half of patients will develop hyperinsulinemia and dyslipidemia, which greatly increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Note 12
＊Conclusion: Coenzyme Q10 (Coenzyme Q10) may have a positive effect on improving polycystic ovary syndrome, and it needs to be further verified by more large-scale controlled studies
Coenzyme Q10 improves Parkinson’s disease
Parkinson’s disease (Parkinson Disease) is caused by the degeneration of the substantia nigra striatum related to the neurotransmitter: dopamine, which makes it difficult to transmit instructions to the brain, and then motor dysfunction, but the brain’s memory and cognitive functions are normal Operation
＊Conclusion: Coenzyme Q10 (Coenzyme Q10) is not significantly helpful for improving Parkinson’s disease
Are there any side effects of coenzyme Q10?
Most adults oral coenzyme Q10 (Coenzyme Q10) is safe, with a dose of up to 3000 mg per day (Note 20) for 8 months; 1200 mg per day for 16 months (Note 21); 600 mg per day for 30 Months (Note 22), no obvious side effects reported
The minor side effects that have been reported include: stomach upset, allergic rash, loss of appetite, nausea, heartburn, vomiting, insomnia, fatigue, dizziness, light sensitivity, irritability, and diarrhea (especially at a daily dose of 200 mg Under the circumstances).
Safety precautions (6 points of use taboo)
- During pregnancy, it is safe to start taking Coenzyme Q10 (Coenzyme Q10) after about 20 weeks of pregnancy; however, the safety of use during lactation is still unknown, so it is recommended not to use it
- Do not use with chemotherapeutics: Alkylating agents. Coenzyme q10 may reduce the effectiveness of these drugs. Related drug names are: busulfan (busulfan), carboplatin (carboplatin), cisplatin (cisplatin) , Cyclophosphamide (cyclophosphamide), dacarbazine (dacarbazine), thiotepa (thiotepa)
- Coenzyme Q10 may have the effect of lowering blood pressure. Therefore, patients with hypotension or those who are taking antihypertensive drugs should use it with caution. Related drugs include: captopril, enalapril, losartan ), valsartan (valsartan), diltiazem (diltiazem), Amlodipine (amlodipine), hydrochlorothiazide (hydrochlorothiazide), furosemide (furosemide)
- Stop using it two weeks before the scheduled operation, because Coenzyme Q10 may affect blood pressure control during and after the operation.
- Do not use together with the anticoagulant Warfarin (warfarin), because coenzyme q10 helps blood clotting, and if used together, it will reduce the efficacy of the drug. If you need to use warfarin and coenzyme Q10 at the same time, be sure to perform regular blood tests to assess coagulation Time, especially the first two weeks
- Taking it before going to bed may cause insomnia, so it is best to take it in the morning or afternoon
How to take Coenzyme Q10? What is the dose?
The standard dose of CoQ10 ranges from 90 mg to 200 mg per day. The requirements may vary depending on the person and condition being treated. Some studies have even used higher doses.
Because CoQ10 is a fat-soluble compound, its absorption is slow and limited when used on an empty stomach. Therefore, it is recommended to take with meals to accelerate absorption
In experiments, it was found that if it is taken together with fat-containing foods, intestinal absorption can be accelerated by 3 times. Note 17
What are the dosage forms of Coenzyme Q10?
In the human body, there are two different forms of CoQ10, the reduced form of ubiquinol and the oxidized form of ubiquinone. Ubiquinol accounts for 90% of CoQ10 in the blood.
Both forms are helpful in increasing the circulating levels of Coenzyme Q10 in the body.